Dualisme Pemikiran Sufistik Ibn Taymiyyah

Yunasril Ali

Abstract

Abstrak : Ibn Taymiyyah, meski dikenal sebagai tokoh panutan radikalis salafi yang anti pembaharuan dan alergi tasawuf, ternyata merupakan inspirator kaum modernis dan juga seorang sufi. Bagaimana mungkin seorang yang anti tasawuf   juga adalah seorang aktivis tasawuf ? Bagaimana posisi Ibn Taymiyyah seharusnya dipetakan?  Bagaimana pula sikapnya yang terlihat kontradiktif ini dapat dijelasakan? Dengan mengkaji karya-karyanya dan mempertimbangkan pengalaman hidup Ibn Taymiyyah yang ditelisik melalui perspektif psikosufistik penulis akan menjawab persoalan tersebut. Tulisan ini menyatakan bahwa kritikan dan penolakannya atas jenis tasawuf tertentu (nazharī-falsafī) didasarkan kerancuan dalam pemaknaan istilah dan paradigma yang berbeda dari objek yang dikritiknya. Ditunjukkan pula sikapnya menjelang kematian —dalam kondisi batin terkondisikan sedemikian rupa sehingga bukannya dipenuhi diskursus ilmiah, ia tenggelam dalam taqarub dan perhatian penuh kepada Allah dan mencapai puncak pengalaman sufistik, fana— kendatipun kontradiktif, tidak lain merupakan perkembangan dari kesadaran religiusnya.

Kata kunci : radikalis salafi, dualisme, fiqh al-qulūb, neo-sufisme, anti tasawuf, ḥulūl, ittiḥād, waḥdat al-wujūd.


Abstract : Ibn Taymiyya, despite being well-kown as a figure of salafi-radicalists which are anti-reformism and oppose tasawuf, in fact is an inspiring figure for some modernist Muslims and is a sufi. How could it be possible for someone who criticizes tasawuf to be a sufi? How should Ibn Taymiyya be placed correctly in this regard?  How could his contradictive attitude be explained? These questions will be discussed in paper through a careful study of his works and by investigating his life-experience from a psycho-sufistic perspective. This paper argues that his criticism to certain kind of tasawwuf, i.e., the naẓarī-falsafī, is often based on confusion in understanding terms and departs from different paradigm used by the object of his criticism. Finally this paper shows that the attitude he has, towards the end of his life—in an inwardly situated condition in such a manner so he is far from any discursive activities and totally drowning in the taqarruband having full attention to God and achieving the peak of mystical experience, the annihilation— however contradicts to his early standpoint, is nothing but the continuation and growth of his religious maturity.

Keywords : salafi-radicalist, dualism, fiqh al-qulūb, neo-sufism, tasawuf naẓarī-falsafī, anti tasawuf, ḥulūl, ittiḥād, waḥdat al-wujūd.




Keywords


Radikalis salafi; Dualisme; Fiqh al-qulūb; Neo-sufisme; Anti tasawuf; Hulūl, Ittiḥād; Waḥdat al-wujūd

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