DIALECTIC OF THEOLOGY AND MYSTICISM IN ISLAM: A STUDY OF IBN TAYMIYYA

Sangkot Sirait

Abstract

Abstract : Islamic theologians and sufi orders are rarely considered to have totally different ways of of discovering the truth of God. In the view of Ibn Taymiyya, on the contrary, Islamic theology and mysticism, both together strive to deliver people to understand the existence of God so they are, accordingly, willing to do good and leave the bad. This what will bring into the perfection of human soul. What makes it different is that Islamic theology (kalām) is more theoretical, while mysticism is more practical. Islamic theology as a theoretical mean leads man to the logical belief. Yet, the realization of this logical belief will practically be appeared when it was charged by Sufism. Yet, Ibn Taymiyya denies such concepts as “union with God” as the highest goal of human life. Absorption into the God and contemplation into the highest Reality should be realized in terms of sharī‘a. For him, the supreme absorption is the absorption in worshiping (ibāda) God. 

Keywords : Islamic theology, mysticism, ascetic, epistemology, fiṭra, waḥdat al-wujūd. 

 

Abstrak : Umumnya, teolog dan Sufi dipandang berusaha menemukan kebenaran Tuhan dengan caranya masing-masing yang berbeda dan tidak saling terkait satu sama lain. Namun sebaliknya, bagi Ibn Taymiyyah, kalam dan tasawuf  sama-sama berupaya untuk mengantarkan manusia memahami keberadaan Allah, sehingga bersedia melakukan kebaikan dan meninggalkan keburukan demi mengantarkan manusia pada kesempurnaan jiwa. Bedanya, kalam  lebih bersifat teoritis sementara tasawuf lebih bersifat praktis. Kalam sebagai sarana teoritis dapat mengantarkan manusia kepada keyakinan logis. Keyakinan logis ini baru akan terealisasi nyata secara praktis melalui melalui tasawuf. Meski demikian, Ibn Taymiyyah menolak konsep penyatuan diri dengan Tuhan sebagai tujuan utama manusia. Melebur dalam diri Tuhan dan kontemplasi atas Realitas tertinggi, menurutnya, harus dilihat dari aspek syariah. Baginya, puncak dari kesatuan adalah penyembahan dan ibadah kepada Tuhan.

 

Kata kunci : Teologi Islam, mistisime, epistemologi, fithrah, wadat al-wujūd.




Keywords


Islamic theology; mysticism; ascetic; epistemology; fiṭra; waḥdat al-wujūd

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